Glossary

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  • cDNA
    Complementary DNA
  • CI
    A confidence interval is an estimated range of values in which all data (results) are likely to lie. For a given treatment effect measured in a trial on a sample of a population, the confidence interval can be calculated to give a 'best estimate' range of the treatment effect that will be seen(...)
  • CMDh
    Coordination Group for Mutual Recognition and Decentralised procedures – human (CMDh) http://www.hma.eu/cmdh.html"
  • Complementary DNA
    Complementary DNA
  • Compound
    Two or more elements or molecules which are chemically bound to each other. The term ‘compound’ is often used to refer to a medicine which is being developed.
  • Computer Tomography
    Computer Tomography
  • Confidence Interval
    A confidence interval is an estimated range of values in which all data (results) are likely to lie. For a given treatment effect measured in a trial on a sample of a population, the confidence interval can be calculated to give a 'best estimate' range of the treatment effect that will be seen(...)
  • Confirmatory studies
    These are studies conducted in Phase III of the clinical development of a medicine. They aim to confirm the efficacy and safety in a large patient population. They can involve thousands of patients, can be run in many countries, require a huge amount of expertise to be run effectively, and are(...)
  • Confounding Variable
    A confounding variable is something, other than the treatment being studied, that can affect the measured outcome of a trial . For example, imagine that a medicine to prevent the common cold is tested by administering it to 1,000 men, while a placebo is administered to a group of 1,000 women.(...)
  • Continuous endpoint
    A measurement, often expressed in numbers, collected in a clinical trial that represents a specific variable. Unlike binary endpoints which are expressed by ‘yes’ or ‘no’ (e.g. ‘survived’ against ‘dead’), continuous endpoints are expressed by measurement on a continuum of possible values over(...)
  • Contract research organisation
    A contract research organisation (CRO) is an independent organisation that provides support into the medicines development process. Typically, a CRO will organise and conduct clinical trials to test an investigational medicinal product in humans.
  • Coordination Group for Mutual Recognition and Decentralised procedures – human
    Coordination Group for Mutual Recognition and Decentralised procedures – human (CMDh) http://www.hma.eu/cmdh.html"
  • Cost effectiveness
    In the context of pharmacoeconomics, cost effectiveness is studied by looking at the results of different interventions by measuring a single outcome, usually in 'natural' units (for example, life-years gained, deaths avoided, heart attacks avoided, or cases detected).Alternative interventions(...)
  • CRO
    A contract research organisation (CRO) is an independent organisation that provides support into the medicines development process. Typically, a CRO will organise and conduct clinical trials to test an investigational medicinal product in humans.
  • CT
    Computer Tomography

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