Glossary

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  • Double blind
    Double blinding is a method used in clinical trials to reduce the risk of bias, which can be caused intentionally or unintentionally when trial participants and/or researchers are aware of which participants are receiving which treatment (or placebo).For example, in a trial with one treatment(...)
  • Drug candidate
    In medicines development, the drug candidate is the molecule among several that has been shown to have sufficient target selectivity and potency, and favourable medicine-like properties and justifies further development. It will then be subjected to a new series of tests, and non-clinical(...)
  • Drug development
    Drug development is the process of bringing a new medicine to the market once a drug candidate (lead compound) has been identified in drug discovery. It includes non-clinical tests on microorganisms and animals, application to the regulatory authority to initiate clinical trials on humans, and(...)
  • Drug distribution
    The process by which a medicine is distributed from one location to another within the body. See also pharmacokinetics.
  • Drug substance
    An ingredient intended to exert pharmacologic action or other direct effect in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, or prevention of disease or to affect any function of the body. Along with other ingredients (excipients,) it is used to formulate a medicinal product.
  • Drug tolerance
    Tolerance of a medicine may be considered as the ability of the body to endure a certain dose of a medicine. In contrast, drug tolerance refers to a decreasing response to repeated constant doses of a medicine, or the need for increasing doses to maintain a constant response. Drug tolerance(...)
  • ECG
    Electrocardiogram
  • Effectiveness
    The capability of a medicine to produce a desired or expected effect in the real world clinical setting. When talking in terms of efficacy vs. effectiveness, effectiveness relates to how well a treatment works in the practice of medicine, as opposed to efficacy, which measures how well a(...)
  • Efficacy
    Efficacy refers to the ability of a medicine to provide a beneficial effect (a positive benefit/risk ratio) when studied in a clinical trial. When talking in terms of efficacy vs. effectiveness, effectiveness relates to how well a treatment works in the real world practice of medicine, as(...)
  • Efficiency
    In the context of health economics, efficiency of a medicine is a measure of its ability to provide a beneficial effect against its costs to individuals or society. The most efficacious treatment may not be the most efficient (cost-effective) option, for example making it unaffordable for the(...)
  • Electrocardiogram
    Electrocardiogram

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