Glossary

AJAX progress indicator
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  • ACS
    Sets of data from individuals in a trial are given unique codes so they can be stored and managed properly. Anonymous coding systems (ACS) use codes that do not relate to personal information that might be used to identify the individual in any way (for example, a participant's initials or(...)
  • Agglomerate
    Cluster of independent but similar things collected or formed into a mass.
  • Allocation concealment
    A technique used to prevent selection bias by concealing the allocation sequence from those assigning participants to intervention groups, until the moment of assignment. Allocation concealment prevents researchers from (unconsciously or otherwise) influencing which participants are assigned(...)
  • Allogeneic cells
    Allogeneic cells are cells obtained from a donor, such as bone marrow or umbilical cord blood.
  • Alternative hypothesis
    In medicines development one might for example formulate the hypothesis that a new treatment for a disease is better than the existing standard of care treatment. If the new treatment is called ‘B’, and the standard of care treatment is called ‘A’ then the hypothesis states that ‘B’ is better(...)
  • Ames test
    The Ames test is a biological assay that uses bacteria to analyse whether a chemical can cause mutations in the DNA. A positive test indicates that the chemical is mutagenic and therefore may act as a carcinogen.
  • Amorphous
    Having no definite or specific shape or form. Shapeless.
  • Anonymise
    The removal of personal information (such as names or addresses of clinical trial participants) so that people using trial data cannot identify the individuals who took part. Truly anonymised data contain no information that could reasonably be used, by anyone, to identify individuals - even(...)
  • Anonymous
    Anonymous data has had all personal information (such as names or addresses of clinical trial participants) removed, so that people using trial data cannot identify the individuals who took part. Truly anonymised data contain no information that could reasonably be used, by anyone, to identify(...)
  • Anonymous coding systems
    Sets of data from individuals in a trial are given unique codes so they can be stored and managed properly. Anonymous coding systems (ACS) use codes that do not relate to personal information that might be used to identify the individual in any way (for example, a participant's initials or(...)
  • Anthropology
    The scientific study of the social, cultural and physical development of humans, past and present.

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